Initial scientific tests with the Li-Ion battery started in 1912 with G.N. Lewis however it was not until the early 1970s that the initial non-rechargeable lithium batteries became commercially accessible.Attempts to develop rechargeable lithium batteries followed in the 1980s,but failed due to safety concerns.Lithium is the lightest of all metals,has the greatest electrochemical potential and gives the biggest energy density per weight.Rechargeable batteries utilizing lithium metal anodes (negative electrodes) are capable of supplying both good voltage and exceptional capacity,resulting in an extraordinary high energy density.
After much study on rechargeable lithium batteries during the 1980s,it was discovered that cycling causes adjustments on the lithium electrode.These transformations,which are part of normal wear and tear,decrease the thermal stability,creating potential thermal runaway situations.When this occurs,the cell temperature swiftly approaches the melting point of lithium,resulting in a violent reaction called “venting with flame”.A substantial number of rechargeable lithium batteries sent to Japan had to be recalled in 1991 when a battery in a mobile phone created flaming gases and caused burns to a person’s face.
There is no memory and no regular cycling is needed to prolong the battery’s life.In addition,the self discharge is less than half compared to Ni-Cd and Nickel metal hydride,making the Li-ion well suited for modern day fuel gauge applications.The high cell voltage of Li-ion battery enables the creation of battery packs comprising of only a single cell.Several of today’s cellular phones operate on a solitary cell,an advantage that simplifies battery style and design.Supply voltages of electronic apps have been heading down,which in turn calls for less cells for each battery packs.To hold the same power,however,higher currents are necessary.This emphasizes the significance of particularly low cell resistance to enable unrestricted flow of current.
Because of the underlying volatility of lithium metal,in particular throughout charging,exploration moved to a non-metallic lithium battery using lithium ions.Even though slightly reduced in energy density than lithium metal,the lithium-ion is stable,as long as particular safety measures are met when charging and discharging.In 1991,the Sony Corporation commercialized the initial lithium-ion battery.Other producers followed suit.Today,the Lithium-ion battery is the fastest developing and most promising battery chemistry.
The energy density of the lithium ion battery is commonly twice that of the typical nickel cadmium battery.Improvements in electrode active components have the potential of increasing the energy density close to 3 times that of the Nickel cadmium.In addition to good capacity,the load characteristics are fairly good and behave similarly to the Nickel cadmium in terms of discharge attributes (comparable style of discharge profile,but different voltage).The flat discharge curve presents productive utilization of the saved electrical power in a useful voltage range.The Li 18650 battery is a low maintenance battery,an advantage that most other technologies are unable to state.